A check sheet is a tool that allows for the collection of information regarding quality issues. Check sheets for quality problems scores the amount of problems for a number of predetermined defect causes. Once the check sheet is complete, the total score of problems for individual causes can then be used to make a Pareto chart or a histogram.
Cause-and-effect diagrams, also known as fishbone diagrams, depict the causes of individual events and the connection between the events. These diagrams are used to pinpoint the cause of a specific quality problem in order to fix the issue. It is common for these types of diagrams to be constructed by several team members in order for discussion to take place on the legitimacy of the causes.
Control charts are made up of a horizontal line that represents the norm of the process. There is also a line above and below, to represent upper and lower regulation boundaries. Various samples are gathered over a period of time and added to the chart. It is clear that there is a quality problem, or one that should be looked into, when there are measurements that extend above or below the norm line.
Pareto charts contain line graph and bars in order to graph data. It is a method of finding out where the sources for defects come from and pinpointing the source of largest reoccurring defect. It is easy to understand due to its simply detailed visual presentation.
Histograms are used to give a rough assessment for the probability of a source of a problem. It shows the occurrences of observations that occur amongst the subject focus point. Flow charts, otherwise known as run charts and stratification, depicts the stages involved in a process. They allow viewers to easily identify and solve issues of quality problems by clearly showing the details of a certain procedure.
Scatter diagrams depict the connection between variables. By comparing two variables, it is easy to see where there is a correlation or where one is lacking.
Shruti Bhat PhD MBA Certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt is Pharmaceutical R&D and Continuous Improvement Director, Innoworks Canada
Shruti leads path-breaking product development programs such as Complex Generics, Nanotechnology and Targeted delivery systems for pharmaceuticals and natural products. Her mantra is to "Shorten development timelines, build quality-by-design, lean processes and bring products fast- to- market". Shruti integrates her proficiency in Design Thinking, Lean, Kaizen and other Continuous Improvement methodologies to improve R&D processes, productivity and profitability.
Shruti is Product Development & Continuous Improvement Advisor to several start ups, mid-size and growing firms in Canada, USA, India, Africa and other Emerging markets. Shruti has authored six books and is an invited speaker at several conferences and workshops.
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